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No. ONE. 


"Punjab Sanskrit Series 







No. \. 




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Dr. F. W. THOMAS, M. A., 







Pt. bhagavad datta, b. a., 

Professor of Sanskrit ftnd Saperintendent, Research Department, 

D, A. V, College, Lahore, 




The Punjab Sanskrit Book Depot, Lahore. 


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Pbinted by Bhaieo Peasada at the " Vidya Peakasa" Pbbssl 

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The Artliashastras have been in existence in 
Avyavartaas a saparate literature from very early times. 
The superiority of Dbarniashastras over Arthshastras 
is referred to in the Smriti ascribed to Y4juavalk(ja hi 
the following sbloka:— 

The same is said in the Bharishf/a Purdna as 
quoted in the Apararka :— 

Ndrada Smriti also remarks in the same way : 

In his well-known Aithashastra, luHitilm f not later 
than 3rd century B, C.) says that a literature bearing 
this title was extant in his days, and that he compiled 
his treatise after seeing the works of his predecessors. 
His words are : — 

(^Second edition, p. I), 


f. t 

J r. * -^^ * C * *= 

( 2 ) 

Not only Kautilya, but also works anterior to him 
refer to this literature. In Caranavi/uha the forty-ninth 
Parishishta of the Atharvaveda we read: — 

•v r ^ 

•\ «Nr -s •v 

3?r^^^Ti5^'^N^^: I 

ITR'^^IW^R?^'^ II '^11 

This second view that the Arthashastra is the 
Upaveda of Rigveda is held in the Caranaryvha ascribed 

to Shaimaka. 

%^Hip^^^^fr ^f^rT I 

iri^^^'T 'ir^^rii' i ( =^1^: w^x ) i 

It is clear then that Arthashastra claims a great 
antiquity in the history of Sanskrit literature. 


Pancatantra ( textits simplicior 12th century a.d. 
according to Dr. J. Hertel) has a reference to a niti 
maxim of Brihaspati. 

Bhoja in his Yuktikalpataru (Ilth century A. D.) 
while refering to the niti literature says : — 

^Compare with this the teaching of Mahabharata:- 

*r* »■ 

( 3 ) 

Ashvaghosha in his Buddha Carita (about first 
century A. D.) has remarked about Brihaspati :— 

The well-known Kdmasutras of Vatsyayana not 
only refer to Brihaspati as the compiler of an Artha- 
shastra but state that he lived about the beginning of 
creation. The whole account runs thus : — 

m^'^w^^^mi^ ^rf^f^m ^fi^^ null 
lI^qnfT^F>?:fn:^^ II ^ li 

Bhasa also refers to a Barhaspatya Arthashastra 
in his Pratimd Ndtaka : — 

mWy JTNT^ W\^^^^ ^ r^ "Wm ^T^ p,79. 
The ]Mahabharata has the following to say on this 
point : — ■ 

So we know that the Barhspatya Shastra claims a great 
antiquity in the history of Aryan literature. 
The question now arises, as to whether the origi- 
nal work of Brihaspati was composed in verse or sfttras 

( 4 ) 

•ir ill the mixed style. No doubt some stitra literature 
aloiig^ with g-itha and other works, was extant even 
before the time of the compilation of the Brahmanas 
beoius? the Sliitipxtbx Brahinina (^|5rT3[Fqr^TT^T5TT^ 
W^o ^\i ^o vS cTfo ^ #»o ?^)alhTdes to it, but it is not 
sure whether it had come into vogue at times as early 
as those of Swayambhava Manu and Brihaspati, the 
preceptor of Indra, 


Scholai-s like Max Muller and Buhler held that the 
Dharmasbastra of JManu was originally a ^composition in 

the mixed style of siitrasand shlokas. Biihler tried his 
best to pot forward this theory with such ])rcofs as he 
could gather. One of his strongest proofs was a passage 
JTT'T^^3cgj^T^^f?a which he found in Va.'ri.'-litLa Dhaim 
ashastra. Now it is sure that the original work of Manu- 
had passed through the hands of several editors,as for 
example Bhrigu^Narada etc., when it reached the compiler 
of Vas.Dh. and that a carna of theKiishna Yajur Veda 
namely the ]\Ianava had also come into exist, nee. It is, 
thereforer, quite clear that a school of the MAnavas had 
come into existence even before the 3rd century B. C, 
The ArthasMstra of Kautilya refers to a certain 
author of this vei7 school The views of the Manavas 
represented in thisArthashastra differ widely from the 
Smritiof Manu, it is, therefore^ evident that the school 
consisted of authors who differed greatly. It was thig 
great difference which troubled Buhkr very much when 
he could find no reason as to why the teachings of the Sm- 
riti differed from the Manava Grihya Sttra. The whole of 
st\tra literature of the Manava school came into existence 
after the Manava cavnahad been established, and hence 

( 5 ) 

we can sxfelv coiicliide that the orii'inal Sniriti of 
Mann was purely in verse. 

As quoted bj Biihler on the authority of Narxda, 

we know that thj orijjhial work of Manu b32:an with 
a verse (shlobn, as Narada saysj. On the other hand 
all works in siitra or the mixed style begin almost 
with a siitra. 

Again Dbammapada (circa 4th century B.C.) has two 
verses which are only a Pali version with some change 
of words of the text of Manu Sniriti. 

^%t fed I qRT#^?ft ^^e 

Kautiliya Arthashastra also as referred to on 
pages 101-03 and 1^)0 of his ''Lectures on the Ancient 
History of India " by Shri D. R. Bhandarkar has two 
verses of Manu Smriti with slight changes only. 

* Read hero the note of MoX Muller on 83 of Vol. X 
Part I of S.B.E 

( 6 ) 

Hero, Professor D. R. Bhandarkar following the 
lead of Buhler arrives at the result that * the verses 
(above quoted) were not composed by Kautilya but 
were utilised by him from some work which was in 
existence long before he wrote or the (metrical) Manu 
Smriti was compiled.' This is nothing but a prejudice in 
order to bring down the date of Manusmriti. First a theory 
is started — Manusmriti is accepted to belong to a later 
date,-and then if any work anterior to that date is 
found containing the verses of Manusmriti, (although 
not mentioning this fact but still indicating that the 

verses are not his own) it is said that the work in ques- 
tion and the Manusmriti both utilised a material of 
a very old period. Both this assumption and conclusion 
do not seem to be convincing. 

Last of all we may refer to two verses, to be 
found in the 18th Sarga of Valmiki Ramayana, where 
the author of that work explicitly says that the 
following two shlokas were sung by INIanu :— 

♦ Vasishtha 1. 22 ; Baudhayana II. 1. 85 and Yishnu. 

t My friend Pandit Nanak Chandra B. A. informs me that 
Maskri and HArdatta on Gautama Dliarma Sutra have got 
the first hrdf of this verso on the name of Kanva. They both 
mve ?ET^T^^ ^^ place of ^f T^^^, Hard^itta at the same 
time quotes the full verso from also with the words 
^ ^X*t^^ • There a^so the first half of the verso has ^JTT^^ 
and the second half has exactly the same words as in the 
present day Manu. 

( 7 ) 

%?5^ W^^ ^"i^f ^^ '^"^^ ^'^'^f I 

"t^" r^ 

\^^^\t ^mm^^ ^^: ^fm^ ^m II \^. 11 
?;rt r^^ra-^i^q ^^(^[tIt i%r^^ in^ 11 

The verse 32nd is Manusmriti VIII. 38, and 
verse 33rd is Manu YIII. 316. 

It may, therefore, after this beief discussion be 
safely concluded that the original Smriti of Manu 
was like the present one composed in verse. 1 


Like its original, the Manusmriti, the Smriti of 
Brihaspati was also in verse. That work is however 
lost now (if it may not be unearthed by some future 
researches). The small collection of some shlokas 
which is generally called the Brihaspati Smriti 
is but a child's play as compared with the Bc4rhaspatya 
Shastra referred to in the Mahdbhiirata. Trofessor 
Julius Jolly collected fragments of Brihaspatismriti 
from different law books and and their commentaries, 
for translating them in the S. B. E. Vol. XXXIII 
But these fragments are also incomplete. An exhaustive 
collection of all the sayings of Brihaspati will not be a 
fruitless task for some future scholar.2 

1 1 hope to discuss this tulject in^ldetwl at some later 

2 After the above Unas were written I read in the Vedic 

M?.<:r.zine that Pandit Jaideva Vidyalank?.r of the Gurukul 
Kf.ngri is busy with this work ?.nd will shortly bring out 
this useful col ection. 

( ^ ) 


Just as the views attrilnited to the school of 
Manu by Kautilya and his follower Kamar.daka are 
not to be met with in the present law-book of Manu, 
so also the views ascribed to the school of Brihaspati 
by Kautilya are not found in the collected fragments 
of Brihaspati. Brihaspati is referred to on six different 
occasions by Kautilya. See pages. 6, 1:9, 68, 177, 192, 
and 375. {Teoct, sewtid edition) 



The present st^tras even if they do, possess but a 
very remote connection with the Barhaspatya shastra. 
Even pruned of their sectarian matter, they do not 
appear to belong to any of the adherents of the original 
school of Brihaspati. These sutras may only here and 
there contain a view of the old Barhaspatya school. As 
regards the date of this w^ork, nothing can be said 
with certainty. The guess of Dr. F. W. Thomas may 
turn out to be a trueone. This much however, is certain 
that the work is not anterior to the sixth or seventh 
century A. D.* 

• Pc'«nclit Ji-.i Devi". in tho Veclic Magi^ziiie already referred 
io says th?«t the work is posterior to Kitlicli-s, for the reason 
the.t in his Meghaduta Kalidas refers to Kiiiikhal alone, while 
Hardwar or Gangadvara which is a Shidva tirtha of a recent 
origin is not at all mentioned by him. This G--'iig:.f!vi;ra is 
mentioned in Bc^rhaspatya sutra ]1I. 122. Hence the work is 
{■ostorior to the recognition of Hardwar as a sacred place. 

( ^ ) 


There is another ti'eatise connected with the 
name of Brihaspati, It is the Barhaspatya Samhitu, 
We find it often quoted in the Tir^r^lir ST^?:i!J' of 
^^Hr^^r^ ^^ ^^fk^\%^' It is in the form of a dialogue 
l^etween Nahusha and Brihaspati, The work is in the 
mixed style of prose and verse. This Samhita also, 
m is apparent from the numerous quotations in the 
above mentioned woi4^., beai« no connection with the 
present sti'ras. 


No doul.^, there was a atheistic logician 
Brihaspati by name; but was lie the writer on polity I 
Somadeva Suri ( 10th century A, D.) says in his 
Yashastilalva ^c^'jfi?^^^ f^i%^m<|^ (p. 13 Nii^ 
nayasagar 1 901) and his commentator Shrutasagar Suri 
says f f ^q%iOf!^ Mm J ^^ ^5^^^'^fT^^Rf^.tm^^fif 
%^ ^^flfirfir^T^ ^ JT?^?^ I So, according t-o the com- 
mentator the Nitikiira Brihaspati was the renowned 
CarvaJka. However., all th<e ]^revioais quotations go 
against this view, Brihaspati the politian, being 
connected with Manu and othei*s of tlK3 theistic schoo?, 
was certainly a theist. vSoinaideva and his commentator 
confuse the two Brihaspatis. 

There ha^e been thus three eminent pers'>ns at feast 
known by the name Brihaspati in the Utei*ary history 
of Bharata, The first and the most well-luiown was 
Brihaspati^ the writer on polity; secondly Brihaspati, 
the carvaka logician, and thirdly the pei>jon who wrote 
the samhita. 

( 10 ) 


(0 ^im^i^ ^T^T VI 

(k) sFif^^Tf^^iJTqn^^^i?^ 


(\s) n^sTf^^g c»< 

(«^) ^SR^ ^f^^ ^i?<^ 

On this the commentary says 
5RTqT%^Tfi[qTqfi3:^^» I 

quoted by ^rT^TH^^jft 
on p. 91 of ^T^rfirT^^ 
Nirnayasagar edition. 

A common saying of the 
Dharmashastras. Cf. Manu 
IV. 92. 

quoted by Ramchandra 
Budhendra on ^frR[(^^31 
(Nirnayasagar editionl 9 17) 

( 11 ) 

These sfltras of Briliaspati were originally 
published in LE MUSEON Troisicnie Serie— Tome 
1. No. 2, 16 Mars 1916. The^text printed there, was 
in the Roman script. To this, Dr. F. W. Thomas had 
attached his valuable introduction and translation. 
By the kind permission of the publishers — The Uni- 
versity Press Cambridge — of that journal, through 
Professor Balkrishna M. A.; the editor of the Vedic 
Magazine, Wcis able to publish this material in his 
journal for the month of October 1920. The deva- 
nagari text of the stitras printed in the Vedic Magazine 
was prepared by me. During its preparation I was 
thinking if the text with the introductien and trans- 
lation of Dr.F. W.Thomas could be preserved in a book 
form. Even Professor Balkrishna desired the same. 
This became soon practicable, when the publishers of 
the present edition undertook this task. 

In the end I should thank my friends Pandits 
Vishva Bandhu Shastri M. A. and Nanak Chand 
B. A. and my pupil Desh Raj for going through 
the proof-sheets, 
Dayananda Anglo Vedic 

College, Laiioke, J. BHAGAVADDATTA 

December, 1920. 

( 12 ) 


The text here edited with a translation was brought 
to notice in the course of a search for a celebrated 
treatise, also ascribed to a Briliaspati, namely the 
exponent of the Lokayata or Carvaka doctrine,the 
ci^ude corporealism of India, ,The discovery of this 
work, to judge from the quotations in the Sarva- 
darshana-samgraha and elsewhere, would contribute 
notaWy to the entertainment of student^ of Sanskrit 

The pi-eseiit treatise is not devoid of interest, but 
the interest is of a different character. The work is in 
one res|)eet unique, being an exposition of the Science 
of Royal Policy in Sutra style. This Indian science 
may claim no ordinary place in tlie history of culture, 
since two of its suceedanea, the policy in fable and 
the game of chess, still styled the Royal Game, have 
inade the conquest of the world. In its pure form as 
a science of monarchical government it does not seem to 
have passed beyond the Indian sphere,that i& the sphere 
dominated by Indian culture, including Further India, 
the Malay countiies, Central Asia, and Tibet : for, 
though the Muhammadans have a science of govern - 
ment, which may go back t'O pre-Islamic Persia,, it does 
not seem to betray an Indian inspiration. And Macchi- 
avelli's- Prince, if kiflluenced at all, as is. 'k priori quiter 
conceivablCyby oriental models^would derive rather from 
the Muhammadan than the Indian. The propagation 
of the policy in fable (the Fables^ of Pilpay) was first 
adumbrated by Sir William Jones, in a sentence^^ 

* From the Third Annual Discourse : prefixed to his 
transkton of the Hitopculeshx, 

( 13 ) 

which has l^eaii expanded by Benfey, with remarkable 
learning, into an important treatise ; just as another 
sentence from the same eminent scholar developed in 
the hands of B )pp into the science of Comparative 
Philology. j=r' . 

In its technical form the Indian science of polity 
first became known by the publication of the Kdmand' 
a'ci-NUisdra with selections from the commentary 
(e lited b} Kajeiidralal Mitra and others in Bibliotheca 
Indmi, 1861-1881). The next stage is represented by 
two valuable publications of Professor Formichi, a 
translation of the work of KdmandaM and a treatise 
entitled Gli Luliani e la loro Scieuza politica (Bologna, 
1890 J. In 1008 a notable paper by Professor Hillebra- 
ndt drew attention to a number of quotations from a 
})rose work ascril>ed to Canakya, also known as Vishnu- 
gupta and Kautilya, which was plainly the original 
authority upon which the later scholastic expositions 
by Kamandaki and others were based. Prof. Hillebra- 
ndt was unaware at the time that this original trea- 
tise had already baen discovered in South India, and 
that the discoverer, Pandit Shama Shastri of Mysore, 
had published an article dealing with it in the Indian 
Antiquarif ( 1905, pp 5 sqq. ) and had commenced to 
issue a translation in the Mysore Ee:iew ( 190G-9, 
completed in the Indian Antiqiiari/ for 1909-10 ), of 
which publications notice was taken in Mr Vincent 
S-nith's Earlij History of India ( Oxford, 1907, pp. 
134 sqq. ) 

The text was edited by Pandit Shama Shastri 
( Mysore Government Oriental Library Series : Biblio- 
theca Sanslcrita, No. 37) in 1909, in which year, having 

( 14 ) 

bean fiivoured with a perusal of proof-sheets I was 
able to draw attention ( J. E. A. S. pp. 446-71 ) to tne 
extreme importance of the work. In 1911-12 Professor 
Jacobi in two very valuable papers ( Kultur-Sprach' 
%md Literaturhistorisohes mis clem Kautiltya and Uber 
die Echtheit des Kautiltya in the Berlin Academy 
Sitzungsberichte, 1911, pp. 954-973, 1912, pp. 832-849) 
discussed the bearings of the work upon the Indian 
literary and linguistic history and argued forcibly for 
its authenticity. We have also to take note of interest- 
ing dis3as^ions of the work by Prof. Jolly, Lexika- 
liscJies aus dem Arthashd^tra {ladogermanische For- 
schuiigen, xxxr., pp. 204-lOJ, Kolleldaneen zum 
Kautiliya Artkashdstra (Z. J), M. G., ]914, pp. 
345-359J, Dr Johannes Hertel, Liter avisches aus dem 
Kautilit/asJidstra (Vienna Oriental Journal, xxiv, pp. 
416-422 J, and Dr Jarl vanCharpentier, £'?^ Indisk hand- 
hok i statslara /ran 300 /. kr. (Nordisktidskri/t^ 1913, 
pp. 353-369J, Narendra Nath Law, Studies in Anaent 
Hindu Polity {Based on the Artkashdstra of Kautilya) 
(vol I., London, etc., 1914) and a partial commentary 
compiled by Dr L Sorabji, as a pupil of Prof. Jolly, 
and published at Allahabad in 1914. A revised trans- 
lation by Pandit Shama Shastri is now passing 
through the press. The information contained in the 
Arthashdstra is still far from exhausted,and the interest 
in it may be expected continually to increase. 

As Prof. Jacobi has mentioned, Canakya frequently 
quotes his predecessors, both schools and individuals, 
the style often assuming almost the form of a discuss- 
ion ; and it is clear that in (say) the fifth and fourth 

< 1-5 ) 

centuries b. c. the subj( ct of royal policy was a recogniz- 
ed topic. The schools are the INIanavas, Barhaspatyas, 
Aushanasas, Ambhtyas (no doubt, of Taxila ) and Para- 
sharas,and the individuals Bharadvaja, YishalakshajPi- 
shunajKaunpadanta, Yatavyadhi and Bahudanti-putra. 
It is, therefore, of interest to find that in the account 
of the science occurrig in the Mahabharata (cited by 
Prof. Jacobi, 1911, p. 973)* some of these names occur. 
There we are told that the founder of the science was 
Brahma himself, whose work was abridged by Shiva in a 
treatise entitled Vaishdld/csha, and then further abridged 
in succession by Indra, who compiled the Bdhudantaka^ 
Brihaspati the BdrhaspaU,a, and Kavi ( Ushanas ), 
the(Aushanasa) treatise- of which the last-mentioned is 
named alorg with those of Manu, Indra, Bharadvaja, 
and Gaurashiras in another passage of the same book 
(c. 58, 2-3), also in 1. 98, 36 and elsewhere in the lite- 
rature(e.g.5a;wa mishanasa in the Jd?iakl kara?ia,xM). 

^Tsm^ ^^1f^^T ^Tm\ 5h: I 

TR^T^ ^mJTl ^mm w^r^rf^: li ^ li ^q^qv^ 

* Also cited by Dr G. Oppert in his Weapons, Army 
Org-iwhiifion And Politic.Ll Maxims of the Ancient Hindus^ 
1880, p 35. B.Datta. 

t I hjA-ve introduced hero the original. slilok»-S for the 
benefit of the rea,der. B. Datta, 

( 16 ) 

mfsi w^ik^mn sqgsfi^^ ^I'^mi \\\^\\ 

^ ^$^^^^: ^w^?T3^^: II ^-5 II 
'^f^%T n^t w iw ^§wn f^ II "^^-s II 

snTHt r^Wf^^'^^^T 5?:^: II 4'. 1 1 
^: T^*i^m qfrp ^^^ I 

^•■^RRt HW^ M^^ lfFTf%: I 
'^iW*^ f^"^ fit^^ 'Tf^ U -?^ II 

To complete this brief sketch \ye shoxild mention the 
SAuk/'aniti, no very early work, which has several times 
(by Oppert at Madras in 1882,by JJvanandaVidyasagara 
at Calcutta, 1832 etc. etc.) been edited in India and is 
now accessible in translation (by Piof. Benoy Kumar 
Sarkar in Sa'-red. Books of the Hin las Allahabad, 1914). 

The A^ni-puixWa, has also a section devoted to the 
subject, which is, further, fully represented in the 
Mdnata Dhannasdstra, as well as in the Mahabharata. 
We need not mention the later and minor treatises in 
Sanskrit literature. 

( 1' ) 

The Ntti literature of Burma is of a different'^ 
character. In the Tibetan, however, where we find also 
quasi-independent works on government, there are' 
translations of Sanskrit texts in verse ascriljed (1) to 
Masuraksha and (2) to Xagarjuna. The Javanese has, 
besides a professed translation of the Kdmandaki 
Nttisdra^^ho some ntinortracts, pei*hap3 representing- the 
lute moral anthology which bears the name of Canakya. 

If the sliort text which is here edited were represen- 
tative of the ancient Bdrhaspatya doctriiie, it would have 
a considerable interest. Unfortunately, this is far from 
being the case. It professes, indeed, like the Brihaspati 
Smritiy to be dictated to Indra ])y his Purohita, But 
what follows is a brief and strangely disjointed exposit- 
ion of the subject. Its ckite, as it stands, seeryis from 
an apparent mention of the Yadvas of Devagiri to bo 
brought down at least to the twelfth century a.d. It 
refers, in passages w^hich, however, may be suspected 
of interpolation (see notes to II. 8-35, III. 8-16, 33-7, 
119-33), to the sects af the Shaivas, Vaishnavas, and 
Shaktas and names their sacred domains (A's/ietras)^ 
some of which may not be ancient. It does not seem to 
contain the matter indiciited by the citations in the 
Arthashastra of Kautilya (pp. 6, 29, 63, 177, 102 of 
the edition). It displays some grammatical peculiarities, 
e.g. neuters for masculines (which may sometimes be 
explained as accusatives obscured by the elliptix^al 
sutra style and ^ice ver&a)^ accusative after ti-shvas 
(which, however,. occurs elsewhere), and even the forms^. 
samgrahet (which should perhaps be samgrahnitd, as^ 
the correct samgrihnii/dt occurs several times) and dlvydt 

( 18 ) 

(old subjunctive of dh' ; see Lexx.). Finally, it presents 
some confusions (e.g. T. 36, II. 34, Y. 17), probably due 
to the Mss., and one strange word hisumdnta, which, 
though it can hardly be for Musalmfm, might conceiv- 
ably be a roundabout expression for Pallava (or pa li- 

It is not, however, the case that nothing can be said 
on the other side. Apart from the suspected interpolat- 
ions, the tone and style, and even the disjointed and 
miscellaneous character of the work, produce a sense 
of antiquity : it is hard to conceive of such a treatise 
being deliberately compiled by persons acquainted with 
the Nitisdra of Kamandaki and the ShuJcraniti. Some 
of the expressions, e.g. atihhedapet (i. 5'^), alamMrayet 
(iv, 10), are in the old ^K.^a^/^a^ra style, as are the 
proverbial expressions (e.g. i. 29, 100, n. 11, v. 13, iv. 12). 
The name Tishya^ as applied to the fourth, or Kali, 
age, recurs in the Mahdbhdrata and Harixamsha. A 
connection with the Barhaspatyas may be seen in the 
restriction of the royal sciences to one, namely dandaniti 
( Arthashastra,p. 6),althongh they add rdrttd (which again 
is represented in our text by krishigorakshahdnijydni^ 
II. 4; cf. Arthashastra, p. 8, krishipitsJmpalye bd/iijyd ca 
mrttd ). The importance attached to the Lokayta and 
Bauddha doctrines also points to the same direction. 
The term Kdpdlika, as applied to adherents of the 
Kdmashdstra, requires explanation; but some Shaiva 
sects e.g. the Pashupatas encourage erotic ideas. 

Upon the whole we should perhaps not be mistaken in 
maintaining that the text does, though rather remotely, 
dQvi\Q h'oxn.t\ie ^i\(i\Q\\t Bdrhaspai'ya system. We might 
compare it with such treatises as the existent Vedmigas, 

( 19 "^ 

or with the Atharmveda Parishishtas, which contain 

undoubtedly ancient matter along with strange lexico- 

graphiccd and grammatical features (e.g. homayet and 

even namaskaret ; see the edition by Negelein and 

Bolling,-.Leipzig 1909-10, index). They belong to the 

backwaters of priestly studies preserved in Southern 

India, v.dien the general interest was transferred to 

such subjects as Nyaya, Yedanta, law, and grammar. 

A Ms. of the work seems to be recorded as in private 

possession in South India (see Oppert's 'List,' vol. 1. No. 

46-12).* This r^rs. has not been procurable; but by the 

kindness of Prof. Ranofacharya, late Curator of the 

Government Oriental mss. Library in IMadras, I have 

been favoured with a Devanagari copy of another ms., 

which iSjUnder his charge. Upon this (M) I have based 

the text, recording the slight variants of the Royal 

Asiatic Society's Whish ms. ( W — noted in Winternitz's 

catalogue under Xo. 160 (3), p. 219). Both originals are 

in Grantha character, and they derive not remotely 

n^om a common source.^ The punctuation follows 

almost invarialjly the Madras copy : the numbering of 

the Sutras has been added. 

As the treatise is definitely : a Sutra, a commentary 
must have been designed. Does a copy exist, perhaps 
under Oppert's i. No. 6061 Bdrhaspatya-siitra-tikd 
(no longer traceable) ? It might contain something 

* There is aBother ms. of the work with Shri Pandit 
T Gjinapi-iti Shastri of Travi^ncore. He writes to me in his 
letter dated 22nd Dec. 1920 thus— 'As desired in your letter, I 
?hall arrange on receipt of your printed forms ot Barhaspatya 
to note down the variants.' These I have not yet rcceived.B.Datta, 
1. Whether, this common source was the actual Madr?.s ms. 

( 20 ) 

interesting, more especially as it is not quite clear that 
the text in its six adhydpas is complete^. 

I hope shortly to be in possession of a Niti^siUra 
ascribed to Canakya. * - . 

Or not, I am unable to domoBstrate. Thi^t it wi-.s in the Granthn 
chnracter is proved by the confusiois between e ti\d id (v. 15); 
°aw and n (read as n: iii. 1 18. iv. 88, v. 22) ; m and h [ i.5,n.8,18, 
III. 76, 81, 92, V. 11); k f.nd t (i. 54. 76. iii. 81, 92, 131, v.l3); 
h and tt (III. 122) ; ^ and hh (iii. 67) ; c and v (iii. 26-7) ; o 
and p (II. 39) ; ?2c and .''o (ii. 73, iii. 23,87, 10^);] and hh 
(it. o3) : ndhnd ndr (in. 41); nd r.nd ndh (ii.43); t and m (v.26); 
n and r (i. 7) ; nu and nri (i.54); p and v (v. 27); la and/i (11,9) 
vra and vi^i (v 26). 

~ i> 2. "We may here enumerate the chief grammatical 
peculiarities above referred to. Some of them njay be due to the 
elliptical ISntra style, while some masculine plurals in awi frona 
nouns in a may be conjcC ured to be Ms. errors, final n (Grantha, 
etc.) having been read as ni. Also double gender in such nouns 
is common : 

(a) neuter for masc. : 

ahhiprayam (v. 9) ; artham ? (vi. 9) ; nsarani (in. 57) ; 
iipa,y&ni(iy. 43) ; kolaham « iv. 36); hjm-im T (ii. 47): devdoyzkiii 
(in. 56) ; dharmam ? (ii. 46) ; prafik:?ram tiv. 50) ; mantrAiii 
(in. 8, elsewhere masc. : different sense ?); molsham ? <\i. 48) ; 
lohham (i. 22) vadham (it.49) ; s/iaMam (iv.33, known el ewhere); 
!ivaram^\Y, 17) ; vishaya (iii. 113 ?). ^ 

(h) compounds with af?t in various genders, having no 
obvious concord : i. 12, 57, 64, 65, 106: n. 16, 19 ; iii. 15. 
(e) masc for neuter : 
aushadhJi (hi. 1 39) ; kahetseJi (ni. 1 19-122; also neut.); phaLh 
(hi. 73) ; see also in. 9. 

(d) i\rj-ior arj : 11. 7, 9, 13. 

(e) suparihritya (v. 15) ard divy9,t (iii. 46,47) arearcbaicr 
As regards Sardhi,! have usually normalized, sometimes leavino* 
h in pause, where it is legitimate, 

* This has now been printed as an appendix to the second 
edition of Kautilya Arthashastra by Pt. Shama Shastri. 

( % ) 

1. index: of proper names and 
other important words. 

^ff^ 5^iy^ii 

<t:gr '•(l'€,?X,^S'^yil?I.X,'^?H 

vg^ vu'i^ 

VTST^Tont ^l?^c;|| 

wk^ ^l^»,-5H 

H^ XI??HI 


JtI"^?: J^i^eii 

%^ 1^l\l 

^^^* ^ir^^ii 

^^^ ^ly-^ii 

'^^ ?.?V<" 


^^^ ^i??^il 

swt ^i^^^ii 

^ifrr^fV ^l??^^ll 

^^JTFfT ?KS?«^"®^H 

?:r^^ ^i?^yii 

^RN^ ^i??XII 

^JT J^jy^ll^ir;^!! 

^ Vl'^KW 


^m^'^ H^«,^M^'?^"?i?X' 

^T^^qfir yi^^ii 

x^^m^ x\l^\\\ 

fiRT^^ ^ll^XH 

TW^f^ ^lUoll 

f^^ ^llVt,^V/'(^ll«lUI! 

'l^T ^l?^^ll 


ml^^* ^»?««ii 

%^RH W^'^W 

ffT^ ^i?y^ii 

%^m^ v<MMM^^\ 

Brit v^'^vi 

. ■ n' 

yr? ^ir^Mi 

5^^ J^l^^ll 

SIR^ *:ii?«yn 

^TtK- ^I^,U,?^I»?55?,?V4» 

^n ^lu^ii 

Rt^ ^ilx,^^^n 


ti^ ^i<,??iua^,l^ia 7 

S^^ \\W\ 

«fr 5^1 XII , 

»^ ^l?^X« 

^^ ^i^J^ii; 7 ^ : 

1^^^ ?o?IIXI^o|| 

S^ ^i^.^xii ? 




^fe*fm ^1^511 







^f^g^^^ WlR'-^w 



icft^sfjio" ^.ll^yil 











^T%?^ ^ic;5ji 

























^W^-^r?: ^i<v-<ii 





























J^^ftrTR ^iqo,^;^c|| 

















( 5f ) 



^^^^m ^ic;-ii 


^11 o"^!! 




-y' , 


. Shata Patha Brahmana. 
According to the School of KanvaSr- 

.Text in 


Dr. W. Caland M. A., Ph. D, 


It is the important Brahmana of the White Yajur: 
Veda. This recension is of high importance for the . 
study of the Veidc period and the editor has adjoined 
an extensive introduction to it, treating of the position 
of the Brahman in the Yedic Literature and of its ling- 
uistic peculiarities as compared with the Brahmana of 
the cognate Shakha. This edition is highly appreciated* 
by the well-known American banskritist Professor C^Rv 
I^nman. It is a voluminous text hitherto unpublished 
anywhere. As this is a big and expensive work, wer 
will undertake to publish it when we get r)00 perman- 
mit subscribers of this book. So the Colleges, Libraries- 
and scholars,who wish to have a copy of this important 
Vcdic work should get registered their names. 

^. ^ftrftr ^^^ — text in Devanagari characters;, 
indited with an introduction, notes, extracts from the- 
(K)mmentary and list of mantras etc. by Dr. W. Caland^ 
M. A, Ph. D. fin the Press). 
Apply to — 

The Punjab Sanskrit Book Depot, 

Said Mitha, LAHORE, India. 


Wi 'Hi^'M^H^ i 



r^ ♦ 

in^pn^T^^JHR ^ IP. ©II 
^ ^m^^^rm^ www » ; 

1. W ito^st: |2. W ^ 1 3. W emm^ 1 4. M wases 11 
and inserts it after 12. 

^%T^f^ =^ IR4II 

5. W 0^ I 6. W c^qr I 7. <SV«; perhaps a verb 
(sra^^) is underst(xxl, ,1 

^Tm1r^#^qT^>^ 11^511 

#'^?%WWIT'T^> i[ ^^ J-^^ \i ? -ill 


S 5 

R?T5r "^ nun 

I^^^R^^'^: ^lltrTS?? ?:ff^ 11^9 II 

T^rw^f 5q% JT ij^ii ij i^ii 

.8. .S'w M; W[o?T>jft], Eead o?nf^: ? 9. W 
«JT^5TIH^f 1 10. W ngr^ 1 11. W o»i?m^-the reading and 
sense are doubtful. 12. W qfto | 13. W ^ft^^siit^frno | 
14. W ^JTR I 15. For accusative after f^->5f3[ see Lexica 
andxomp. V, 19 infra . 16. W c3tl5Tt^ll7. M includes 
^f!?* in the next stUra. 18. W ow>g?TO5R»% < 19. M e^i 


^5 **» Iff 

20. ^isjto I 21. M W CSKT^ sro I 22. W ejjji; 
M o5t «i:9 I 23. M ^mqto 1 24. M W insert if | 25. Read 
^ for ^?r ? W esjw^o | 26. M engo; W ©3If o 1 27. W 
e%i5^« I 28. M wgo | 29. M ^«n9 I 


• •v •^ 


80. M here inserts strf^tl 31. W B'tV I 32. Sie 
( not fqo ) I 33. W fHl* I 34. W o?q5»; M ev^^ with 
^m{(^ilfTT in the next stitra I 

^rf ^q?^5^^^ I 


^T^l ^\^ ^m 3"gT?!: ii^^ii 

85* W f^^ro I 36. Text corrupt, reading doubtful. 
37. M ^K I 38. W cf :sr?t^ I 39-39. M includes in the 
next sMra. 40. W ^qr© i 41. M o^^ | 42. W r^^^qn; | 
43. M W includes ^^^e^ in the next siUra. 4:4:, Sic ( for 
qtpR ^fir ? ) I 45. W ^t I 46. W m^o\ 47.^5Tre I 

sy^ms'cq-m: I v5 

y o ' — 

f f 

^W^mr'm mm: ^«t#t!?t>^: i|.^ji 

48. W eqmro I 49. W f%%?^r3?lto | 50. Sic ( for 
'^^A®iMin>) I 51. Sic (omit ?Tf^ ?) 52. W ^muRinm^o | 
53. M4 gr ITTo I 54. M W o^^^|55.W omits m 56. W 

•v rs 

^^ m'?r^\^^mi\^-*\\'i\%^ i>m ?q^r% ^^^ 
i'5.iK<<j<ri\+*>i>t^if[ 1^^ ]a[fr^i II ». 0-511 

57. W nmTO^^Co I 58. MW of^ I 59. W 
TWTR^l I 60. Sic (see note to trans.) 61. M ?T^?t^o I 
62. M llt?^^^m5^o, W «ft^fcl J^^T^fTft. Read fw?Tt f f:f^ 
^5RT5«o I 63. M W ift: I 64. MW ^i? Jcft^r 1 65. e^Stm I 

'6G.^M omits W^ \ 

[ fefRts^<::q[R: I ] 


5wr T\nn ii'.ii 

^f\^ m !l«!l 

^ mm. m^^\%^^ ip.«ii 

^f'f^Rit^qrnH'THiiT^^if II '.'.I I 

q^ "^^ji^ ^^,7<^f';mmi\w^'^wj *iHiH*i- 
PT^^nri'T^cff 119.511 

.V - - ^ 

«■■■■ I ■ I 

1. W mo I 2. M 5/(7; W c^&Tft^: correct reading 
doubtful ( ^qmS- ? ) 13. W ^^m^r^o I 4. \V ^. Kead 

?0 ^T^^qr^5Fp(H I 

rs '^ rN rs rs* "^r 

?^i ^^ ^^whY^^^ ^f^Ri%:^: fq^^Rq^-^iT l(^ 

^ II'.CII 

'i o 

6. M W o^rjT^ I 7. W fe^T; M W g^f?rT i 8. j\T W 

Sic ( read ^^K ? ) 9. M Sic (read c^:o or ^ ?) 10. M W 

^^^rm^ I 11. M 5?:Tfq^ 1 1^. W omits i[5- 1 13. W. o^r i 


K^5?T[% II5 5II 

3 - 

t^'TTTr^T^^sT^ tR^THR ^ f qT;T ||5y|j 
TT^Rt ^ ^f?T^ ll^^ll 

^[% 11=^11 

17. W ^TfT^5W I 18. M W ^^: I 19. W oq^; | 20 W 
W^^^ I -'1. M ^r^flT I 22. Went I 23 W o==r< I 

9^ ^rr^^^^fi^H J 

r>- ■^ rv .^ 

«m^^ II rfCii 

24. M sr for fcT I 25. W jtc^^o, M oik: ^^^^^o \ 

26. W tri^^Rf^o I 27. W omfirfH: i 28. Sc. qfrg^?!: 

aad so with the accusatives in sutras 46-8. 29. Text 
corrupt; W o^R^W?%35F. Bead o^IT^ ^?lf sf ? 


^T^-^j^iw ^r5#u^T 1^ rr^gn: gj^F^ f^-g^. 

^r 'TIT frnk^^^^^f VT^j;^ 111^411 

^lr%^ w^%^ I ICC 1 1 

30. M W ^^^r<\^ I 31. M W f^fjfe I 32. W 

f Ir^rr^To i 33. M fefg^ ^sfr q^^^, w St^r qf?i^. No 

interpuncuation in either case, 34. W cw*^ I 35. M 

fJT^R I 

?« ^r^ ^Trq-^^^q: \ 

l^ir^jq ^^^^ jr^^% gir^rt lic^ll 

.e. r •s 

3r#w ^Rqri: li^oii 



n • 

1^ 5rri^Tr^?5^& fkrft[?,o^]^S'£^T€?F: If 


36, W ^^i I 37. M of^^rTT I 38. M ofTWv^ro I 
^9. WTTff^ I 

[ gcfR[Sc?TR' \ ] 

-i^s^j-t t 

rN "^ 

T^W^^^'T m^TT 1 1 ',11 

%?rpT^^%^ f^frl^ WrT I I'll 
^IW ^1^^^ f^i^ 1 1 ^11 

^^iH ^'^11% f^Fi: {\^\\ 

1. W ofev. W read ^m^:^:')^ i i^ Sic M W. 3. ^V here 
inserts ^ | 4. M ot^j^ | i5. W uiii. KTIrfj* and i^utras 

?« mk i^ ' ^f<j<4 ^q: I 

-"^ -^ rvi. 

^^RI^i*iTR?ITm: RTK ^^^ 11^''.^ I 

«gr^^ m*/[R R^q^ li ^'^'Ji 

T?^ ir<Mll 

6. W c^^^ \ 7. M W o^mfk I 8. W o?T^ <ft^: 
19. M ofiT^>^r5Tt^ I 10. W rf^^o I 11. W here inserts^ 
^ I 12, W c^i«rM I 13. W qt|<T I 14. W oiuits q; i 
15, M W '^^ I 16. W ^ I 17. W q?m I 

C rv N 

1^ _ 



"V vv 

18. W ^^K. I 19. W omits JI I 2!). W 9??ff { 
21. W ^ I (for ?5r) ! 22. W wfq ^ f: ( 


^^ ^\zqm ||"iivs|| 

--a-r -a .ar 

23. W f^o I 24. >S'/c M W. 25. W ^^o \ 26. M 
iiiterpuncuateS" here and not after c^frf^fir; | 27. W 
iHJm'ifi o I 28. Sic W M (for c^i^ ?) 

9 ° 

^5r ^f%?!iT# mx^i ^^t \\^\\[ 

29. W omits m I 30. Corrupt, reading doubtful. 
31. W cf?Tt I 32. W e% | 

^« ^r^^q^fpq: I 

5 ;j 

. '"^ 

f^r=^5TT: 11^ '.11 

^Sf^sf ^i»Ta ^Tr: 11'=; <u 

TR^%*^^t5nn:^^^ ^#=nT wmir ^?:^ »>*^[- 

33. W ;pr^ I 34. W c!ir I 35. W omits tR I 36. W 
esff I 37. egiT I 38. M omits ^; W ha.s eg^ | 


f^^rfTiffT^^Tr^r^^ ^Tf): ^% f^^mt ^iri 

39. W 0^ I 40. W m^^o I 41. W orT: I 42. ^S/^ 
43. W ^^ I 44. W c%^ I 45. W otT^: | 46. W ofrar I 
47. W 0^ I 48. W ^T?^Tflf ?ir!^5fe^o I 49. W fe^mrfo I 
50. W o^T I 

T^^ ^: IP.'. '.II 
f qn: '^^ \\\\^ I 

TIIT^ ^1 ilUviii 

^^ ^%^fTiTw: q^^r^rqr^c 'j^rijq^T^ q>^- 

qpRi: ^Ti: II? KM 

'^^ 'l^'TmTn TTtrfNi: llU^li 

51. W omits ^ I 52. W c^ | 53. W ^o | 54. W =^ 
^^^^1 ^i^. W^rgo I b(j. W fij^i:, M n,^\ \ 57. W 
q^^o I 58. W 5rTi?l^ do I 59. Sic (Masc.) here and in 
the sutras 122, 125. fJO. W c^?^ %o | 

fifn: fmft ^^ r^ i i ', ^^ii 
qnT^ %W5t: IP.^sji 

61. W ^rf^grPTT^ll^o I 62. W e^rr (masc. as in 
119). 63.W ^5to I 64, Sk (masc.) 6o. Sic (tbr^fgt^?) 
66. M g^f?tT I 67. W <^ I 




68. ^Sic ( mas3. ) 69. W o^^fqrfto I / 0. W here inserts 
Hi:r: l 71. Sic (read off ?) 72. 67c ( read o^ ? ) 73. o?^f: | 

[ ^^^s^'^tR: I ] 

^ 5frT^?9TT^ ll'.li 

r r 

v:^^^i^ ^^ ^gm^7"tR^^ lii^ii 

^^'iRi^i^iq?^ lir-cii 
^^R^r^rwT^^iW^'i^^^i 'JTWW^J 1 1 '.^11 



t'.C ^jqimTR^Hf^ =^ llKll 

1. W f:'ff:^ KH^K (Sic ueiit. ) 2. M s^^njro I 
3. M W ci=T»r^o I 4. W o>!T5T t 



. T^^E'.^ ^]^r iHw^t iR'^w 

r\ ^ 


5. W csjsi^ 1 6. W o^^s:^ 1 7. Wc^sft 1 8. W sRg^qfwo I 
fi. W n?^ I 10. W here inserts ^1 11. W ?!?[<» ' 

^g»ifs^;^T^: I ^\| 

^ r ^^ 

12, M vh^mri ?FTi??TmT; W riH^f ^r^^r^r 1 13. Sic 

(neut.) 14. W ^^jth; | 15, M oxo^fj?!; see iatroduction, 
notes at the end. 16. M ^^•ff ) 17-17. W omits. 

^i; ^Tf^qr^^^ 1 

3^: ^NI'll^r^TTR R^^ ^^IW^ ^HT^ ^T^ ^'T- 


18. Sic ( neut.) M W. 19. AV c^ | 2Q.W o^t: I 21. 
Minterpuncuates not here, but after ^^^ I 22. W omits 
^ [ 23. Sk (neiit.) 


[tr^HVc^TPT: l] 



ITf^Rf m^T'TI str^^ |^!'cl II? oil 
^^^1 fffrrviq ^R1 II '.'-.11 

m%^m wr?T%^T^li>5li 

^^1? =^rw ^rt 11% i^ft q5?n^?p|q?r ip/^n 

1. W oja^ 1 ZW ojt: f 3. Sic ( neut.) 4. W o^nn j 

3 o 

5T ^r^ sTB^fR =q \\\^\i 

9, W JT^^JTf^o I 10. Text corrupt in this Sutra ? 
11. ^^ift^i 1*^. W here inserts ?>^ ^ fk^'^^ ^^Wt^l^ I 
13-13. W^'ttT^ I ^Tt^H^^Tm Read ^Ids^R: ^^^T 5T ? 
'Form iiiid ^ f "^ft ) see introduction's end. 14. o^ | 
15. Wmisfc I 16. MrT^ I 

q^ms^^T^: I \\ 

^f^^^ f^?Ti^fR=^i ff^^r?^^ ^q^iTN ^ w^' 


17. o^^iE^lfir 5T0 I 18. Eead ^^^rfrq: ?19. w "jT^fcI I 


[ W^5fS^^?TR: I ] 


^rs ♦ •^ *v _ ^*s 


1. W ^T§^o I 2. Read ^f^rT^rfir ^T^q[ i 3. M tt^ 


Xow the Bri/iaspati Sufja. 

Now Brihaspati,* the l^-eceptor, expounds to Indui 
the Whole Substance of Policy : 


1 Self-mastery is the qualify of a king. 

2 As minister he should appoint oae laastec of 

3 His sole science is the Administratioa of 
Punishment [ r^ Goverameut]. 

4 Even right he should not practise wbon 
disapproved by the world. 

o Should he practise it, it should be after 
recommending it by persons of intelligence, 

6 He is to be served bv his like. 

7 With women, children or the aged, he should 
not discuss measures of right and policy, 

8 He should not engage iu magic show!^ 

9 In incantations [ jnaatra^' ], however, and 

10 Also iu counteracting diseases and poisoning^^ 

11 Not smearing with ashes [like an ascitic]. 

♦Concerning Brihaspati as founder of the Science of 
Policv see the Introduction. 

3 On the question of the king's .sciences soe M 

Arthash-Aatra^ c 1. 

6 On this question of choice of ministers etc. see 

Artha^h\stray cc. 4-5; also 80 infra, 

10 On poison in the pL>laCe see Artha^iri\etray u !?• 

( 2 ) 

12 Also not gicrifice [a^nikotra'], Veda-readings 
and so forth. 

1 "3 Not processions to sacred places, 

14 Also not service of a king. 

15 Nor service of women. 

16 He should not drink intoxicants. 

17 Nor slay a Brahman. 

18 Nor practise theft, 

19 Nor much indulge in garlands and unguents, 

20 He should not be dejected, 

21 Nor over- wrathful 

22 What is called non-giving is greed on a wrong 

23 In a (true) field he should have seed sown. 

24 T Giving should be practised. 

25 Aversion therefrom is greed, 
2() Theft is also greed, 

27 Pleasure is a cause of expenditure of means^ 

28 A will to hurt gurus, gods, wise men, kings, 
and so^forth is anger, 

29 And it is a smiting of one^s own head. 

30 An eneni}^ equal in forces and so forth he 
should slay in war; 

31 Other adversaries [or If attacking others, 
then] by conciliation, gifts, dissension, pretended 
ignoring, and so on . 

32 He shoukl not have sordid dress. 

22 Text i.nd tn^nsUtion uncertraw. More intelligible 

would be c.vii<h:;ye d..ncm,.. 'giving on a wrong occ?ision ia 
Called non-giving.' 

31 I triinslate iny?Jjhiyodhmch. 

'62 Sc. he slioukl never bo in de&habiUe, 

< 3 ) 

o3 And he should not practise over-induigenoo 
in hunting. 

34 From over attai^hment to women ill-rcpute 
grows; ^ 

35 And vitcvlity wastes, 

<>^ In association with those guilty of gaming, 
provoking others^ abusing others, the weaknesses of 
others ( are exposed) along with the words oimaiitras 
in learned or frivolous pJay (?), 

37 Taking of medicine, evacuation of urine and 
faeces, bathing, teeth-cleaning, enjoyment of copulation, 
worshij) of divinitieSj-these also are to be done in 

^8 A sham professor of virtue he should not trust; 

39 Nor censiu'e either, 

40 Nor upon seeing mad or stupid persons., and 
50 forth, should he iaTigh at them. 

41 His sport in private should be with those of 
Hke character and age, 

42 Elephant and horse sports in public; not with 
creatures of two (different) kinds. 

43 And he should not harm living beings of his 
own kind, 

44 Desii'e should be felt for superiority to prede- 

36 Rendei-iiig conjecturc.1. Are the manfras quasi oaths ? 

40 So also in the Shukra-niH in. 2o0 ' The miserablo, 

tlie blind, the dwjirf, and the dumb ij-o never to be laughed fit/ 

42 Contests of dissimilar i*rjimals are here, it seems, 
denounced. Or we might take rahasye from 41 and, reading 
tadvimxxrfam^ render 'Elephe^nt a^nd horse sports in private- 
m puHic tliose with otlier species.' This is less likeJj* 

( * ) 

C£'S5ors and successors in respect of wealth, popiilaritj', 
Eobility, and magnanimity- 

45 Traditional right, goodwill of dependents, and 
councillors, relatives, friends, kinsmen, he should all alike 


46 In respect of dependents, punishment and 

largesse, within and without; 

47 In respect of caimcillors, conciliation, disse- 
nsion, and lai^esse; 

48 In respect of relatives^ allotments of income 
for the sake af conciliation, dissension, largesse. 

49 To even an unwelcome speech he should listen. 

50 In bad weather, when the planets are hostile,. 
at the nakshatra of three birthdays., and when serious 
business presents itself Le should not attend to 

51 He should attach to himself a wife of the same 
country, of the same form,, and of noble birth. 

52 He should cause e&pecially di&sensions (among: 
the wives); excessive conciliation, excessive largesse are 
not to be practised, nor punishn:>€nt to be nsed towards 
women, nor pretended inobservance. 

53 Among them he should not say much^ 

54 Among village petitioners, panegyrists, bards,, 
minstrels, actors, dancing-women, instnictoFS, liars,, 
boys, pimps, traders, herdsmen, harlots, mean kings,, 
he is to ho^ addressed in pompous untruths. 

46 'Within and without r sc. the capital. 

50 ^Three birthdays' r perhaps his own, thf.t of hi» 
fivthor, and that of his grandf.^ther. 

51 'Of the same form' {e''narvifnn\ ) : perh?>p!^ = 
• of tlio s;'«ino cr.ste • {elcamrnn] , 

( •' ) 

55 Association with kings, harlots, .sootlisayrrs, 
and de}3endents he should not indulge in long. 

5Q He should frequent one whose superiority is 
in himself; — 

57 Prospects and so forth [he should regard j not 

58 Those attached to women, gambling, drinking 
he should not h ive in his service. 

59 During five nddikds prayer to the divinity 
of his choice; that passed, the audience; 

60 During ten nddikds administration of justice; 
€lurmg five nkdikks the bath; 

61 During three nddikds the repast; 

62 Daring five w(fiiM>" amus3ment and play with 
dear ones; 

63 During two nddikds twilight worship; 

64 During seven nddikds nautch and so f ^rth; 

65 During seven nMikks sexual intercourse, 
repast, and so forth; 

66 During seven nkdikks sleep. 

67 He should rule himself without failure of 

68 Like the driver of a horse. 

69 High Brahmans [he should gi'e3t] with a shake 
of his head, welcome and giving of leavings and betel; 

56 Or 'his own lord.' 

59-66- On tlie dispositiun of a king's timo soe ArJhas\\i*etra^ 
c. 16, t"-Tid Prof. Formichi, GU Indiani &c., pp 66 sqq. A us,dik\ 
X ^ muhurta = 24 minutes. 

68 'Sh?.king of the head' : on this as a sign of approval 
see the pnssngeg quoted by mo in Kovindrcvcrcnf-sornvf^nyfi 
»d T. J. 

( 6 ) 

70 A mean Brahman not with a shake of the 
heai, even if he brings a present; 

71 A like prince or emperor with welcome, with 
a seat, with a shake of the head, with gift of betel 
and with jocular talk; 

72 Men of the three castes with a smile, with 
welcome, and audience (?); 

73 Shtidras not with a glance or smile nor with 

74 Children, the aged, and so forth, with giving 
of something which they like; 

75 Low-caste [ Foreign ? ] people and heretics 
not even with an utterance, 

76 Owing to importance of business he may have 
recourse to them; 

77 Let him say little, however, and assign the 

78 Let him not accept fine gold [ or receive men 
of the (3) castes] in private. 

79 With workmen, even in his employ, let him 
not deliberate upon the task. 

80 With his friends let him choose a like friend 
as councillor; 

81 But if low-born, he must be one having not 
iow-born caste. 

82 Low-born persons have the characteristic of not 
mentioning their owui objects and of executing orders. 

83 So he should not o ver-chei ish them, 
S4 Nor again should he trust them. 

72 *Audieiice':l translate tu'fc?ie?ifl, bat the t(5xt is corrupt. 

78 VarmkcM-parigrahx : R^'nd v&rniha-j>arigraha -? 

79 'Even in his eaiiploy' .• so tra.nsl?ite yoginah ? 

( ' ) 

Bo Knowing all, he need not act. 

86 Secrecy in regard to right, secrecy in regard 
to home and going abroad, secrecy in regard to measu- 
res, secrecy in regard to enmiiTes; in failure of prestige 
he should deny even the truth. 

87 Physicians, astrologers, soothsayers he should 
entertain, if possessed of conduct and character. 

S'^ Even the truth, if causing grief or misfortune, 
he should not speak. 

89 Up to twenty-five years he should passionately 
practise the study of sport. 

93 Thenceforward acquisition of wealth. 

91 He should keep himself free from indebtedness. 

92 Indebted he becomes by three means, pleasure, 
' anger, and greed. 

93 And he should continually guai-d his person. 

94 He should not neglect the regular rites. 

95 If there is a popular clamour, h.^. may omit 
a minor rite. 

96 Upon a lost cause let him not stand; 

97 Far to be avoide:! then is even a serious matter 
of sovereignty. 

98 He should not favour new commanders who are 

99 A slight loss is to be borne. 

100 As with famiies of elephants, bandits, noxious 
serpents, and tigers living in forest or cemetery among 

98 Kimim^Mcs : this word, wiucli jocurs in i>utra 105, 

is qaito niystorious (^-Pallvcc^ or pJ^.a.Y/, i c r'da ?). 

99 Tiio mouiiing seems to te that a comniMid^. -sJKtJbld 

not bo dismissed for a tlight fi.iluro. 

100 The ido.'. seems to be that oi ihj nursery rhj ma 

( H ) 

thos3 who ill comparison therewith ai*e inoffensive 
tends of kinsmen are not to be engaged in. 

101 Like dogs with one piece of fiesh is that estate 
of sovereignty, when the sovereignty is in trouble. 

102 PoHcy truly is like a trc e on a river's bank. 

103 So he is not to desire [ it ], 

104 Kusnmdntas and so forth are inimical to all 


105 Prestige, vigour, vitality, greatness — -these 

are destroyed by excessive cultivation of Kudumkntas. 
lOG Desire, anger, conceit, jealousy, hypocriry, 
and s^ forth he should not encourage. 

107 An enemy of good character is a friend. 

1 08 Among friends one of good character is an enemy. 

109 Between moon and sun there is hostility by 
reason of their common brightness (tastes): 

110 M^ere it not so, they would both stand fast. 

111 Where there is feud among relatives, tho«e 
two families perish to the root. 

112 Whoso abandons the science of awarding 
punishment, helpless he like a moth enters the flame all 

Sj sp3aks the holy Precaptor, guru of the chief of 
the Gods. 

So in the Brihaspati Sdtra the First Chapter. 

'Let dogs dolight &c. '. VVi^h tlnro.^ding <»kule we should render 
*he dwjlls as it wore in r. family... 

101 S!iu:i% ' J )^' projjbly mj.mi nurj oxActly *pAck of 
do2rs"' : c£. a shva raid Panini iv. 2. 48, 

lO'J, 110 Wo might tr..nsliite 4i between sun :»nd ir.cou 
thora wjro hoitility .... thoy would uoi continue'. 


1 Sovereignty belongs to one possessing advantages. 

2 There is advantage of knowledge, advantage 
of wealth, -and advantage ofcomrades : 

3 Gratification of his own family also and 
protection of usage; 

4 Agriculture, cattle-rearing, trade, 

5 Universally the Lokayata system of doctrine 
is alone to be followed at the time of acquiring gain; 

6 Only the Kapalika as regards attainment of 

7 The Arhata in regard to rights 

8 The Tokayata is not really piT)fital)le (?); the 
advantage quickly perishes. 

9 So the Kapalika, the Arhatrt, and theBauddha. 

10 On these relying, he is like the moth and the fire. 

11 The fruits are like ear-water \jyr water in 
the ear ?1. 

I (?wna is here used in ua soDb© ('stiouir 


4 The Arfhashs,stra mentions ( c. 1 ) the same three 

matters (hrishi, fSishu^alya^ and htm^jya) as the components of 
v^rtlT<i or business, one of the studies of a king. 

5 The Lok&yata doctrine, along with Bt^nHhya rnd Yoga^ 
makes up the triad of philosophy in tb« ArthaihTkstr-a { c. 1), 

6 Elsewhere the Kap^Ukaa are a Shaiva sect : see the 8t 
Petersburg lexicon and reff. 

8-35 These Suirm^ which seem at variance with the 
preceding, and which betray a strong sectarian bias, may bo 
Suspected of being z.n interpolation. No, 36 joins on well to No. 7. 

II * Ear-water ' : is this a synonym of 'sky-fiower, 
Acs 'nonentity' ? or 'water in the ear' /sc. not in the moatii or 
only heard of ) ? 

( 10 ) 

12 When one characterized by ignorance desires 
in a matter connected with right to effect a human 
object, then he is a heretic entitled Laukayatika. 

13 When a Candala is desirous of enjoying fine 
drink, fiesh, and so forth, then he is a heretic entitled 


14 When abandoning twilight worship and so 
forth, sacrifice and so forth, he desires the duty of non- 
killing, then he is a Kshapanaka heretic. 

15 W^hen, abandoning the rites described in the 
Veda,and knoY/ledge of them, also Shiva, the Lord of 
All, Vishnu, and Shri, a man declares that all is void, 
then he is a heretic entitled Bauddha, 

16 When he declares right to be vain, a means to 
gain, he is a Laukayatika; and he declares that the 
pinda and so on are theft. 

17 He does all for profit,-sacrifice, twihght prayer, 
and so forth. 

18 To conceal bis failing, one afflicted with desire 

studies the Veda; 

19 He }>erforms sacrifices and so forth : 

20 He does it with a view to drinking wine, with 
a view to intercourse with women. 

21 He says Vishnu and the others are wine-drinkers 
-&o the Kapalika. 

14 Ki>hapanaha: s Jaina. 

i 5 'Knowledge^: read karma j-Atafn 'mass of rites'? 

1 6 Pinda: the reference seems to be to the food offered 
la the dead: the custom was ridiculed by the followers of 
Krihaspati, as appears from the Garvakay or Lokayata, chapter 
in the Sarva'damhana'Scmgraha, 

( 11 ) 

22 The Kshapanakca, aiming at right, speaks oi 
right as depanding on the bearing of r^gs and broom : 

23 He speaks of Shiva and so o»,— so the 

Kshapanaka. ^ 

24 With a view to abuse of others he studies 

Veda, Skdstra, right and so forth: 

25 He reproaches all; 

26 Eveii Maheshvara, Yishnu and so forth; 

27 He slso si3eaks of right with a view to eating; 

28 For the sake of discussion he praises others- 
this is the Bauddha. 

29 The Laukayatika, when dead, is a denizen of 
hell, extern to profit, pleasure, right, and liberaton. 

30 And the same applies to his family ; that 
family perishes within the period of sons and gi^andsons. 

31 The Kapali,abandoned by his village, household, 
and relatives, becomes a denizen of hell, deuovmced by 
all people : 

32 And at that very time his family perishes. 

33 The Kshapanaka is denounced by his family, and 
those who live in the village, and three families perish. 

34 The Bauddha becomes a very detested denizen 
of hell; and his existing family perishes, or in the time 
of sons and grandsons, 

35 Connection with hei'etics of tliis sqrtjbe should 
not have, even in thought, 

36 Even by one whose counsels are ^weil ordered, 

22 The "broom" is the brush of twigs which the Jain 
ascetics carry in order to brush away insects. 

34 The Sanskrit sentence is here confused : but theme^ai- 
ing is clear. 

36 [Not] : we may, if we profer, adhiki'tdUitui-^ ihis 
JSu-tra connects well with No. 7. 

(12 ) 

who discerns tlie weak points of others, and who is 
[not ?] a man of virtue, sovereignty cannot be preserved. 

37 One infatuated with the conceit of power, filled 
with greed and pride, loses what has been acquired. 

VS Whoso, after reflecting upon his measures, 
enjoys himself, he achieves the highest success. 

39 He must so do that by his action he is not 
known by the world as 'knowing what to do, bent upon 

profit, ' or as * a man of righteousness ': 

40 Like Ishvam, like Moon and Sun. 

41 Counsel is the action of eff'ecting unity of 
opinion on the pirt of persons conforming to a master's 

42 A councillor must speak of measures, regardless 
of his master's preference. 

43 The fruit of policy is attainment of right, adv- 
antage^ and plesure. 

44 Pleasure and advantage are to be tested by 
right ; 

45 Right by right ; 

46 Advantage by advantage ; 

47 Pleasure by pleasure ; 

48 Liberation of the soul by liberation, 

49 Injunction of a guru is to be executed, even 

when at variance with right, as the marriage of the 

P4ndavas,Arjuna's asceticism, Vyasa's intercourse with 

a widow, the begetting of Kama, Rama's punishment 
of a mother and so on. 

40 'Like Ishvara' : his motives must be inscrutable. 
49 The references are to well-known stories in the 

( 13 ) 

50 Even a son, at variance with policy, is an 

51 The young, the vicious, reckless, unacquainted 
with shdstrasy he should notmdmit to counsel. 

52 Dull - witted, immoral, violent, thoughtlesi?, 
irascible, foolish young men are not to be employed in 

53 Let all jewels even be given to preserve one's 
own purpose, life, and prestige. 

54 During counsel he should not not evoke anger. 

55 Right is the main factor ; not personal objects, 

56 Happiness unrighteously enjoyed is no friend, 

57 Maintenance of position is [ or and ] enhan- 

58 Like one who eats what is not wholesome but 
is on good terms with [>r as taking a precaution against, 
Prattkdra ] death, 

A man true to his word, relying upon the Shctstras^ 
might even diy the ocean. 

59 If he is angry [ his dependents ] become disco- 
uraged and timid, 

60 One bad man ruins many. 

61 Fate depends upon manhood. 

51 We translate mantre na praveshayet, 
53 The 'jewels' are the various HreaiUres' of a king, 
his wife, minister, general and so forth. 

57 I translate sthitir vardhanam : reading stkstivardlm" 
nam, we might render * [ he should aim at ] enhancement of hi^ 
actual position' or '...conservation and enhancement.' 

58 The idea may be that of fortifying oneself sgains^ 

61 A common sentiment : f/. Shukra-niti^ 1.05-^ 

( 1* ) 

62 Whoso loves his own wife and in taming him- 
self has capacity, is without equal. 

63 A good man turns not aside • hrough fear. 

64 What at that time is proper is not to be spoken 
by friends not conversant with matters of speech. 

65 One of arrogant heart, lost to respect for right, 
not self-controlled, he could not admonish. 

66 w^hen exhausted with frightful acts, sunk in 
the sleep of ignorance, he should enlighten the fool 
with the cool airs of righteous speeches. 

67 Among bad men a good man shines forth like 
the sun. 

68 Those committed to unrighteousness he should 
check by proper conduct. 

69 In unrighteousness he should not involve 


70 In ill-repute Tie should not involve himself. 

71 He should not slay. 

72 Let a fool be restrained, like an elephant, with 
the hook of righteous reading. 

73 A guru's word is not to be transgressed, if in 
accordance with reason. 

74 Even a guru, if not equipped with policy, he 
should disregard, 

75 A guru says it. 

So in the Brihaspati SMra the Second Chapter. 

Ill ( VIDVA ). 

1 Manliness is the quality of one superior to 
weakness. ^ 

2 One becomes superior to weakness by residence 
in other countries. 

3 Of all powers, times, countries, conciliations, 
natures, strengths, exercises, ages knowledge is to be 
acquired : 

4 Also endurance of fasting and so forth. 

5 He should make treasures with fragrances and 

6 A long conversation he should hold only if a 

gracious one. 

7 All his like-minded ' jewels ' he should ever 
seek to please. 

8 He should know new mantras : 

9 These are threefold : Shakta, Vaishnava, Shaiva 
and their further divisions. 

10 Entrance to the city of Liberation is by three: 

11 Shakta, Vaishnava, Shaiva. 

12 The Shakta is like a journey in a vessel; 

13 The Vaishnava like a high road ; 

14 That which believes in Kerala and Pradhdna 
is like a horse chariot ; 

15 The Laukayatika, Kshapanaka, Bauddha and 
80 foith are like a cavernous route through a desolate 
forest swarming with many tigers and malignant 

9 — 16 Again apparently a sectc.riiin inserton : 
cf. ad. II. 8, III. 83. 

14 This is the Sh?.iva system j see SafVadarshana 
aamgrciha^ c, Vli 

( 10 ) 

16 Having marked tkis, let him hare recourse Uy 


17 Let him ever mark the aspect of the lord of 

lights ( the moon ? ). 

18 And let him defend the order of four castes. 
10 And let him make use of medicines ; 

20 These which foilify strength, complexion, 
energy, self-esteem, intelligence, courage, compassion, 
and reduce the faulty humours. 

21 Let him procure success by gifts, honours, orn* 
amen ts, and sciences. 

22 Let him watch the eighteen Tirihas. 

23 Tirthas are the six constituents of royalty, 
also enemy, friend, and neutral : 

24 Also intestine enemy, intestine friend, intestine 
neutral; and these are dependents, companions, and 


25 Also wives, sons, and kinsmen. 

26 Others also [ to be watched ] are temples, 
places for dances and. 

27 sacrifices, twilight, pools, cross-roads, heretic 
abodes, shops, scho ils for the young, parade-grounds, 
fields, new-mo m etc. festivals, harlots' houses, the sea- 
shore, presence of ascetics, frontiers, places for sale of 
liquor, serais for travellers. 

22 Tirthi : a technical term in the Science of Policy 
for the important personalities in the kingdom. The use is some- 
what peculiar in 23, 

23 The coBstituonts f pralcriti )^ ns usually enunierated, 
are kin^, minister, country, fortress, treasury, army, and friendt 
see Arthishastra, c. 9o, and Formichi, op. cif-', p. 92. 

27 'Twiiight-poob'* would be places for performing 
twilight worship. 


( ir ) 

28 Lot him have festive attire. 

29 At the vlty gate let there be agenero! stoppage. 

30 However, let hiia not exclude all, 

31 Let him honour ItiMsas and Purdnas i 

32 And expositions thereof .' 

33 And the Shdkta scriptures : 

34 And the VaUchduam scriptures ; 
3o And the Sdnkkya ; 

36 And the Shaiva. 

37 As regards all these, let him perform and 
require the due study, 

38 A Brahman let him not slay, even if infected 
with faults. • 

39 To the unmerciful [ no ] meix^y should be 

40 Let him show respect to village headmen ; 

41 Also to city magnates. 

42 Let him conciliate even the weak, 

43 By largesse much : 

44 Not also with little, 

45 In the case of excellent persons not in the 
order of the plenitude of their merits. 

46 Let him play with dice : 

47 Also [ Or ] let him not play at all. 

48 Serpents and so forth let him ^lay,- 

32 'Expositions' : The word 'p.\ha would soem to be 2i 
synonym for f:ikti mjanapakti, lokcpihti Her.ching the people' r 
see Shatapatha-Brahmana XL 5. 7. 1, 

33—7 Those entras are perhaps again nn insertion s MC- 
Introduction and ad IE. 8,111. 9. 

39 Or "zK) mercy (adaya). 

( is ) 

49 High IMljinans, perfected by various mantras 
and rich in knowledge, let him honour. 

50 Brahnians of other countries, A>/^ a? rz//^^Sprinces, 
feudatories, and so forth let him welcome as if they 
^ere liimielf with viands, clothing, and so forth. 

51 A refugee, though qualified by all crimes, let 
him protect, 

52 Let him check the bad ; 

53 And protect the learned. 

54 Let him not o})press a village : 

55 Or a city : 

56 Or temples. 

57 Lot him make use of fennentetl liquors ; 

58 Not in excess, how^ever, 

59 Also flesh food, . . 

60 Compassion to life must be shown : 

61 The Bauddha w^ay and so forth not. 

62 Nor as regards imperceptiljle ( creatures ). 

63 Gay ladies are to be used. 

64 The earth has a measure of fifty krores of 

65 And it has seven continents. 

66 And is girt w ith seven seas, 

67 Karma, Bhoga^ Atibhogay Divya^ Shringdra^ 

61 Tlio Buddhists Mid Jiins espcciLilly denouTico killing 
in s?vcrifij0. 

6-2 'linpjrceptiblo' r.ppr.rontly a reference to the Jaim 
precautions agrinst killing small crer.tures. 

G7 These n;'imes, I'.s r.pplied to the seven dvip :s^ do net 
SGcra to occur elsewhere . but Bhc.rata Vl n-ha is liarmL-hhwmi \u 
||io Vi shun- 2)11 n\na^ IL &. 2-. 

( 19 ) 

Siddha and Kaimhia are the designations of the. 


6S The midiuDst i^* the Lui I of A'jtion (Karma). 

69 What is in the middle thereof, as far as the 
Jamba tree, belongs to INIeni. 

70 Therein to the north is Himvat. 

71 On the south of that is hind of nine thousand 

72 Therein to the south is Bharta Khanda. 

73 There the fruits of righteousness and unright- 
eousness have their visible effi ct. 

74 In relation therto is the administration of 

75 It is to be studied by the people of Bharata, 
h l>ast, future, and present and by men of the four 

- 76 By administration of punishment the holy Sun 

I is king: 

77 And Wind and all the gods : 

78 And mortal creatures. 

79 From Badarika to [ llama s ] Bridge is a 
distance of one thousand i/ojanas. 

80 From Dvarkd as far as Purushottama and the 

70 'On the north' : This cannot mean on the north of 
Meru or of Jambudvipa, which would be contrary to the ordin- 
ary view : it must, therefore, mer.n 'starting wit-li the nortlP 
of India. 

71 'Nino thousr,nd' : The usual estimate, as in the 
Vw/jnw-Pwrana II. 3. 2. 

79 'One thousand' : The same estimate is given by the 
_ Faj/n-Pwrana : see Wilson's note in Vuhmi-P, (ed Hciil,II.p.l27), 

80 The Purushottama-Jmhetra is in Orissa, and the 

( 20 ) 

Shalasrrlma is a distance of seven hundred yqfanas. 

81 In this area also are the seven Great Mountains, 
Kai>ataka, Vindhya, Sahya, Knmam, Malaya, Shripar- 
vata, Pariyatra. 

82 And the Great Rivers, Gangii, Sarasvati, Kal- 
indt, Godavari, Kdveri, Tainrapavivi, Ghritamdld. 

83 And eighteen countries. 

8t Eighteen arc the maritime kings : 

85 And eighteen the hill kings. 

86 The creivtion of Kama consists of one hundred 
and forty ( pojauas ? ) on the south and north, as far 
as the Sah> a twelve ; that of Yishvamitra eleven. 

87 Nepal one hundred and four. 

88 On the shore of the eastern sea : 

From Varuna to the sea is a space of eight yojanm. 

tfh^lagrnma'l'sh, is supposed to Loon the river Guiidr4k : see 
Wilson's Vishnu-P, (index). 

82 Kjreat^Eivers' : The word liiki'twih dees not seem 
to occur elsewhere. On the vaiious lists of the chief rivers see 
Wilson's r^ot&^\Yishnu-P,ll pp. 131>2. The (r/in'tomaZa is,doubt- 
less, Wilson's KritamzlA, 

86 'The Creation of Rama' and Hhe Creatioa of 
Vishvamitra' : The Epic story of V ishvf juitrr/s attempt at a rival 
creation L" well known • but the phrase Vkhvskmitra'srishti 
does not seem to occur in the literciture. In the tradition of the 
pandits the idea is quite f amilic^r, Vi^hvmiitra being credited 
(like Ahriman among the Iranii^ns) with the authorship of all 
fAulty or misshapen and misbegotten things, such as the miragOo 

The application of the numbers in this sutra is obscure, 
Is'as far as the Sahya' = 4n breadth' ? 

88 The site of the Varmia-firtha does not appear to 
he knawn. 

( 21 ) 

89 Each one hundred ai;d live are norlhein Lata, 
And eastern Lata. 

90 Kashi and the Pancala country are tojrether 
ei^'hty ; 

91 Kekaya and Sriniavaare sixty ; 

92 The Matsya and Magadha country one hund- 
re.l ; 

93 Malaya and SIi d^nnta eiiLhty ; 

94 Kosala and Ayanti sixty ; 

* - ■ 

95 Saihya and Vidarl)ha to-^ether tNyo hundred ; 

96 Videha and the Kuru country one hundred ; 

97 Kainboia and Dish arna eighty. 

98 These are the graat countries. 

99 These indeed are four-cornered. 

100 The Arcitta and Bahlika country are from 
south to north one hun Ired, from cast to westt\yelye. 

101 The Shaka and Surashtra cor.ntry are four- 
cornered and of forty. 

102 Anga, Vangc , and Kalinga are of one hund- 
red and fouv-cornercd. 

103 Kashmir, the Iluna and Ai-ilmshtha countries, 
and Sindh are of one hundred and four-cornered. 

104 The Kirata, Sauyira, Cola, and Pandya conn- 
tries, situated on north and south are of one hundred 
increased by sixty. 

89 sqq. For other lists of countries find peoples seo 
Mahahhs,ratay Bhishma-parvan^ lV.3l7-37y. Vishnu-Pur?»na,ll,S, 
Varalia's Brihit'SamhitcM^ XlY^Garga-samhita (Jinaimda-iyxiha), 

93 Shakuntn, is not elsewhere known rename of a c*ountry 
or people. 

103 The Hunas fire, doubtless, those of Hundosh. 

( '-^'^ ) 

105 Tho Ya lava CTantry and Kaiici are of one 

huiidrtii and forty. 

103 Thos3 are minor coiuitrics, 

107 The seven Tv;nkans lU'e of one lumdrcd and 
four, and the.,. 

108 TIkv e are on the water. 

109 On mount Sahaya are four hill countries ; 

110 On Shriparvata two; 

111 On llaivataka one ; 

112 On the Vindhya five ; 

113 On Kumara one ; 

114 On Mahendra three; 

115 On Pariyatra three. 

116 All are equal, from south to north of fifty, 
from east to west of five j/ojanas. 

117 In the ]\Ileccha rmgion are Yavana countries, 


118 The countries are adorned with villages, 
cities, gardens, and so forth, and with holy domains 
and so forth. 

119 Eight are the Yaishnava domains ; 

120 Badarika, Shalgrama, Purrshottama, Dvaraka, 
Bilvacala, Ananta, Simha, Shriranga. 

121 Eight the Shaiva ; 

122 Avimuktaka, Ganga-dvara, Shiva-kshetra, 

105 Yadavas: Perhaps those of Devagiri. 

107 For the ^seven' Konkans, see Wilson ^s Vishnu purMia 
(ed. Hallii„p. 178, n. 14). 

119—127 Again an insertion ? 

120 Bilvacala... ...Siniha : Perhaps tho Bilvadri and 

SimhacAla of which m?JiTktmyas exist. 

( -^'> ) 

llame-Yaunina (?), Slnva-.sarasvati Mavya, SLaidiila, 
and Gaja kshetras. 

12:3 The Shaktaarc also eight ; 

124 Oghghina Jala, PCirna, Kama, Kolla, Shri- 
shaihi, Kaiici, Maheiidra. 

125 These arc the great domains ; 

126 An I Ciijc'tive of all attainment ; 

127 Also ineffective [ (fr to be worshipped 1. 

128 On the Vindhya dwells perpetually Duiga, 
and Bhadrakaii ; 

129 On Kumara Kumara dwells i)erpctually ; 

130 On Sahya Ganapati ; 

131 Oil Riivataka the Teacher ; 

132 On Mahenclra Garuda ; 

133 On PariyatraKshetrapala. 

134 In the Land of Action, wich is Bharata, the 
gods are many times as numeioiis as the men. 

135 Gods, Demons, Yakshas, luikshasas, Bhiitas, 
Pretas, Vinayakas, Kt^shmandas, those with distorted 
features : 

136 What they carry and their dress are deter- 
minate : 

137 Friendly or Terrifvino- Ytxiini^ and Nin/as', 

they, assuming forms at will, contort in counties.^ 
numbers with mankind. 

138 And by men they may be protected. 

139 In that [Bharata connhyjare ambnjsial herl)S. 

122 Aviniuktaka : Benare.4. 

124 Oghghin.x : Ujji^in ? 

]31 The Teftclier : 

133 KshetrapAla : Shiva, 

( 24 ) 

140 At this point the nuinber of the ages, the 
Kritd^ Treta. Dcdpara, and Tishya, 

141 In the Krita [ the creatures are ] possessed of 
knowledge ; 

142 And versed in the administration of punish- 

143 In the Tretii they are active and skilled in 
policy : 

144 In the Dcdpava they are followers of 
Tdntrikas and of strong tastes; 

145 And versed in policy : 

146 In the Tishi/a quarter men are strong in 
knowledge and action, and versed in the administration 
of punishment : 

147 After that they are of diverse rightfulness, 
colour, and dress, and void of the administration of 

148 And the peoples behold, intent upon false 
speaking. Thus says the Preceptor. 

So in the Brihaspati Sfdra the third chapter. 

140 The Mah?i.hh?i,rata also nr.mes tlio Tisbya as the 
fcurth age 

IV ( Omens and Counsel ) 

I At the Brahma hour the rising from sleep. 
t3 Let him consider right and interest, 

3 The cry of the cock is auspicious : 

4 Also the sight of an elephant and so forth; 

5 Also the sound of elephants, the chanting of 
auspicious praises, and Veda-recitation ; 

6 Also holy talk of divinities ; 

7 Also recollection of nobles ; 

8 Also eye-colly rium : 

9 Also looking in a mirror. 

10 Let him adorn [ himself \ 

II Also chewing of betel : 

12 Also camphor, sandal, incense of agallochum: 

13 Conchs, Kdhalas, horns, cut reeds, guitai^ 
harps, drums, kettle-drmms : 

14 And noises of trumpets -, 

15 Also seeing of divine women : 

16 Also the interrupted first note of the minst- 
rel (?) : . 

17 Also the^sound of the /4/^ melody ( or 'the cry 
of birth ' ) : 

18 White flowers in liquid butter. 

19 Fire satisfied with inaMrds becomes of one 
hundred flames, and attended with smoke having the 
sing ef Vishnu, 

20 Then the spectacle of oxen is inauspicious : 

1 The Bn,hma, rnithurta is the eiirly morning: see Weber 
Indische Ski^eod-, x. p. -§96, and Aitareija Brahmana IL 15. 

4 Tho Greek writers^mcntion the early morning salut- 
ation of p.n Indiana king by an elephant (Aelia«i,XIII. c. 22). 

12 Or 'license ot ci^mphor, sajndal, and Agallochum'. 

( 20 ) 

21 Also the speetaele of vultures 

2'2 Also a t'^vilij^Tit l,bize : 

2o Also the cry of quaiTe]lin<^ jackals. 
. '24^ Or tho soiuid of carl^ivorous^ leasts is Iieaiti at 
the gate of village or city. 

2i} Where also sweating of images of gods is per- 
ceived, there departure to anothor place is the only 
appeasement : there is no remedy. 

26 Unavoidablv to be observed are these acts. 

27 Victory is rooted in counsel 

28 Men are of three kinds, best^ ^vorst and middle, 
HO In counsel also [ is the same triplicity ]. 

30 That action is l)est which is undertaken in 
company with a)nnection.s, kinsmen, friends,, the 
I(mrned, the tho'.jghtfiiL 

01 And, when right is doubtful^ devotion to a 

32 .He is best who sets to after faking counsel 
with men intent on advantage. 

33. If, after thinking out good and bad results, he 
sets to through being' overcome T>y folly, he is the 

3-1 That counsel is best which h taken unanimo- 
iisly, under the guidance of \x)licy, by wise councillors, 

3.7 Where, at first of divers opinions, they are 
afterwards unanimous, that is the middle. 

2-3 'Swcatingof images' : Cf. Harsha-carita^ trans , p. 147, 
also VergM's ^/ mapsfum ill:;cnmaf temflh ehur aewagme mdaiit 
(G.ef>rg. .1 V 480), and Milton's 

'And tho chill inarblo seems to sweat 

'Wlalo each pecialiar power foygoes lib w(s>niefe] ."seat*. 

( -'7 ) 

3G Where there is broiling and reproach^ one 
being for right, one for interest, along with women, 
children, and the aged, tears on the one part, anger on 
the other, that is the woi^tf 

rj7 First the measure is introduced by the master. 

38 Then with voice^ action, mind, salutation, and 
rigid prostration let them in order ot dignity be madv} 
to salute the master, 

39 Let him salute him whcse food Vaishmvana 
or Vacaspati when old refuses n A to eat. 

40 For the rest the opinion of eiwh in order is to 
be heard. 

41 The maasurc is to b(^ considered after placating 
the master. 

42 Having first extolled the master's strong [joints, 
and then veighed his masters weak points^ the weak 
points of the adversary, and the weak points of the 
netural, let him agiiii lay stress upon the masters 
strong points. 

43 Havinsj a^rain described the measures and the 
means, and having placated the master, he is to con- 
sider the measure. 

44 With careless, assailed, imfortunate persons 
warlike enterprises do not succeed. 

38 'Rigid prosti-c^tion' : The word 
*prostratioti with thy body str..ig]it a.) i^ stick' occurs in the 
Dashahumara-Girita : see the St. potorslnrg lexicon. 

39 Vi-.isravuna I'-nd Vr«cr.spi-^ti apparently n.aned as 
types of king and Brahmi-n. Note the neg^.tivo verb ahhrnjattj, 

42 Guna and donhx are hoio untochuiciJ : cf. 11. I. 

( 28 ) 

45 Against a not careless, right-knowing person, 
a master of his senses, a conqueror, one angry against 
the powerful, and hanl to assail warlike enterprise is 
not to be undertaken. 

46 '* One knov/ing the SMMras, how does he not 
undei^tand measures? " so let him not say. 

47 Those who conquer the strongest enemies^ 
pleasure and so forth, they conquer all foes. 

48 Let him not make the first advance in render- 
ing services : 

49 Also let him certainly render service. 

50 As regards an unavoidable disaster, havirg 
discerned it in advance, let him provide remedy for the 

51 So says the Guru, 

So in the Brihaqmti Sutra the Fourth Chapter. 

46 1, e. let him not claim practical infallibility en the 
ground of learning. 

V ( r pay as ) 

1 Four mean 8. 

2 Also three : ^ 

3 Also pretended oversight aiul s-laying. 

4 In dealing with the bold conciliation ; 

5 With the timid conciliation and division ; 

6 With the greedy conciliation, largesse, and 

division ; 

7 With the vexatious conciliation, division, larg- 
esse, pretended oversight, and slaying. 

8 Conciliation is to be set to work first : 

9 The purpose of the mind and also the friendly 

action of the voice. 

10 Relatives are pleased at the misfortune ®f 


11 Relatives, in their secret hearts malignant,take 
advantage of a relative. 

12 Among: all dangers the dans^er of relatives is 
to be dreaded. 

13 In cows milk and in a Brahman anger [ are 
certain ] ; 

14 In women tickleness, in kinsmen remoteness ; 
friendship is like a drop of water upon a leaf. 

15 The friendly speech of ciders, also inspired by 
SMstras, whoso heed not, are inspired by destiny :theni, 
therefore, let him carefully avoiding dwell afar. 

16 What is at variance with convention let him 
not practise. 

I The four ufmyas a,re, ot course, war, dissensiu, 
conciliatioD, and bribery. 

( 30 ) 

17 Kinsmen, crocodiles among the lotuses of sec- 
rets of mantras and sciences ; not to act without good 
omeiis -and disasters (?). 

18 It must be told with avoidance of the bad : though 
posseted of knowledge, he is like a snake in the house. 

19 An adherent from the enemy's side one should 
not trust. 

20 Aecoixiing to merit let him entertain (people) 
s in his service. 

21 Let him test by their sentiments. 

22 A hero is not quickly known by the weak : 
intelligence let him promptly test in an unkijuwu matter. 

23 He may be known by his gestures : 

24 A composed person not. 

2iy One whose mind is without a j>prehension is calm. 

26 And without anger : for even chikh*en and so 
forth conceal that. 

27 Upon learning the fall of his family a w ise 
man under these circumstances would have recourse 
even to an enemy's side, if possessed of wisdom. 

28 Unfailingly in the heart the [ effects of ] for- 
mer good and evil arise ; [ so ] the bad man would not 
on all occasions act as such. 

29 The fickle are not to be highly honoured. 

30 So says the Preceptor Brihaspati. 

So in the Brihaspati SMra the Fifth Chapter. 

17 The text is here corrupt, some proverbial expression 
apparently being involved. The import seems to be that counsel, 
study, and secrets, also misfortunes, should not be inciuitiously 

spoken of, 

19 Accusative after n-57wa6, as in I. oi9. 
<:'■ 22 'Re&Aing viro'^ sh9,raih sahas?L na jnayate. 

26 ' Conceal' :^-'yn may, it appears, sometimes have thissense. 

27 Reading nayayuUam. The mo^iung is, however, not clear. 

VI ( Nana ) 
1 He should get to know the axjtion suitable to 
place and time, also policy and imjx)licy : 

:^ Not what is con traryto Veda,manliness,and pride. 

3 Let him observe friendly acts. 

4 Policy is caiTied out after examination by cou- 

5 Let him examine what is to be done or net to 
be done in conjunction with councillors living by their 

6 Whoso can design even an unwelcome measure, 
he is to be employed in counsel. 

7 Let him acquier wealth. 

8 Whoso has store of wealth, has friends and 
righteousness and know^ledge and merit and prowess ^ 
and intelligence. 

9 By one without riches riches cannot be acqui- 
red, as an elephant by one without elephant. 

10 In riches is rooted the world. 

11 And therein are all things. 

12 A man without richen is a dead man and a 

Vo Likewise let him acquire knowledge, the root 
of rii^hteousness. 

14 In knowledge is rooted the world. 

L") Knowledge a^xain is all. 

16 So says the Guru. 

So in the Brihaqmii Svtra the Sixth Chaptei-. 

6 Reading cpi kriry-Am in place of vikaram. The sense 
would seem to be tli^t one who would employ his intelligence in 
measures which ho pcrsonr.Jiv c'isliked would bo a trustworthy 

F. W. TnoMAsi. 


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